Difference between revisions of "learning Hierarchical Features for Scene Labeling"

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'''Test input''': The input into the network was a static image such as the one below:
 
'''Test input''': The input into the network was a static image such as the one below:
  
[[File:cows_in_field.png]]
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[[File:cows_in_field.png | 500px ]]
  
 
'''Training data and desired result''': The desired result (which is the same format as the training data given to the network for supervised learning) is an image with large features labelled.
 
'''Training data and desired result''': The desired result (which is the same format as the training data given to the network for supervised learning) is an image with large features labelled.
  
<gallery>
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<gallery widths="500px" heights="400px">
 
Image:labeled_cows.png|Labeled Result
 
Image:labeled_cows.png|Labeled Result
Image:cow_legend.png|Legend
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</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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[[File:cow_legend.png]]
  
 
One of the difficulties in solving this problem is that traditional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) only take a small region around each pixel into account which is often not sufficient for labeling it as the correct label is determined by the context on a larger scale. To tackle this problems the authors extend the method of sharing weights between spatial locations as in traditional CNNs to share weights across multiple scales. This is achieved by generating multiple scaled versions of the input image. Furthermore, the weight sharing across scales leads to the learning of scale-invariant features.
 
One of the difficulties in solving this problem is that traditional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) only take a small region around each pixel into account which is often not sufficient for labeling it as the correct label is determined by the context on a larger scale. To tackle this problems the authors extend the method of sharing weights between spatial locations as in traditional CNNs to share weights across multiple scales. This is achieved by generating multiple scaled versions of the input image. Furthermore, the weight sharing across scales leads to the learning of scale-invariant features.

Revision as of 15:00, 4 November 2015

Introduction

Test input: The input into the network was a static image such as the one below:

500px

Training data and desired result: The desired result (which is the same format as the training data given to the network for supervised learning) is an image with large features labelled.

File:cow legend.png

One of the difficulties in solving this problem is that traditional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) only take a small region around each pixel into account which is often not sufficient for labeling it as the correct label is determined by the context on a larger scale. To tackle this problems the authors extend the method of sharing weights between spatial locations as in traditional CNNs to share weights across multiple scales. This is achieved by generating multiple scaled versions of the input image. Furthermore, the weight sharing across scales leads to the learning of scale-invariant features.

A multi-scale convolutional network is trained from raw pixels to extract dense feature vectors that encode regions of multiple sizes centered on each pixel for scene labeling. Also a technique is proposed to automatically retrieve an optimal set of components that best explain the scene from a pool of segmentation components.

Methodology

Below we can see a flow of the overall approach.

File:yann flow.png

The model proposed by the paper is depicted above. In the first representation, an image patch is seen as as a point in [math]\mathbb R^P[/math] and we seek to find a transform [math]f:\mathbb R^P \to \mathbb R^Q[/math] that maps each path into [math]\mathbb R^Q[/math], a space where it can be classified linearly. The first representation usually suffers from two main problems with traditional convolutional neural networks: (1) the window considered rarely contains an object that is centred and scaled, (2) integrating a large context involves increasing the grid size and therefore the dimensionality of [math]P[/math] and hence, it is then necessary to enforce some invariance in the function [math]f[/math] itself. This is usually achieved through pooling but this degrades the model to precisely locate and delineate objects. In this paper, [math]f[/math] is implemented by a mutliscale convolutional neural network, which allows integrating large contexts in local decisions while remaining manageable in terms of parameters/dimensionality.

In the second representation, the image is seen as an edge-weighted graph, on which one or several oversegmentations can be constructed. The components are spatially accurate and naturally delineates objects as this representation conserves pixel-level precision.

Pre-processing

Before being put into the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) multiple scaled versions of the image are generated. The set of these scaled images is called a pyramid. There were three different scale outputs of the image created, in a similar manner shown in the picture below

Image pyramid.png

The scaling can be done by different transforms; the paper suggests to use the Laplacian transform. The Laplacian is the sum of partial second derivatives [math]\nabla^2 f = \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial x^2} + \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial y^2}[/math]. A two-dimensional discrete approximation is given by the matrix [math]\left[\begin{array}{ccc}0 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & -4 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 & 0\end{array}\right][/math].

Network Architecture

The proposed scene parsing architecture has two main components: Multi-scale convolutional representation and Graph-based classification.

In the first representation, for each scale of the Laplacian pyramid, a typical 3-stage (Each of the first 2 stages is composed of three layers: convolution of kernel with feature map, non-linearity, pooling) CNN architecture was used. The function tanh served as the non-linearity. The kernel being used were 7x7 Toeplitz matrices (matrices with constant values along their diagonals). The pooling operation was performed by the 2x2 max-pool operator. The same CNN was applied to all different sized images. Since the parameters were shared between the networks, the same connection weights were applied to all of the images, thus allowing for the detection of scale-invariant features. The outputs of all CNNs at each scale are upsampled and concatenated to produce a map of feature vectors. The author believe that the more scales used to jointly train the models, the better the representation becomes for all scales.

In the second representation, the image is seen as an edge-weighted graph, on which one or several over-segmentations can be constructed and used to group the feature descriptors. This Graph Segmentation Technique was taken from another paper. Three techniques are proposed to produce the final image labelling as discussed below in the Post-Processing section.

Stochastic gradient descent was used for training the filters. To avoid over-fitting the training images were edited via jitter, horizontal flipping, rotations between +8 and -8, and rescaling between 90 and 110%. The objective function was the cross entropy loss function, which is a way to take into account the closeness of a prediction into the error.

Post-Processing

Unlike previous approaches, the emphasis of this scene-labelling method was to rely on a highly accurate pixel labelling system. So, despite the fact that a variety of approaches were attempted, including SuperPixels, Conditional Random Fields and gPb, the simple approach of super-pixels yielded state of the art results.

SuperPixels are randomly generated chunks of pixels. To label these pixels, a two layer neural network was used. Given an input of the feature vector from the CNN, the features were then averaged across the super-pixels. The picture below shows the general approach>

File:super pix.png

Conditional Random Fields

A standard approach for labelling is training a CRF model on the superpixels. It consists of associating the image to a graph and define an energy function whose optimal solution corresponds to the desired segmentation.The Conditional Random Field (CRF) energy function is typically composed of a unary term enforcing the variable l to take values close to the predictions dˆ and a pairwise term enforcing regularity or local consistency of l. The CRF energy to minimize is given by

Paper1p1.png

The entire process of using CRF can be summarized below

Paper2p2.png

Model

Scale-invariant, Scene-level feature extraction

Given an input image, a multiscale pyramid of images [math]\ X_s [/math], where [math]s[/math] belongs to {1,...,N}, is constructed. The multiscale pyramid is typically pre-processed, so that local neighborhoods have zero mean and unit standard deviation. We denote [math]f_s[/math] as a classical convolutional network with parameter [math]\theta_s[/math], where [math]\theta_s[/math] is shared across [math]f_s[/math].

For a network [math]f_s[/math] with L layers, we have regular convolutional network:

[math]\ f_s(X_s; \theta_s)=W_LH_{L-1}[/math].

[math]\ H_L [/math] is the vector of hidden units at layer L, where:

[math]\ H_l=pool(tanh(W_lH_{l-1}+b_l))[/math], [math] b_l [/math] is a vector of bias parameter

Finally, the output of N networks are upsampled and concatenated so as to produce F:

[math]\ F= [f_1, u(f_2), ... , u(f_N)][/math], where [math] u[/math] is an upsampling function.

Classification

Having [math]\ F[/math], we now want to classify the superpixels.

[math]\ y_i= W_2tanh(W_1F_i+b_1)[/math],

[math]\ W_1[/math] and [math]\ W_2[/math] are trainable parameters of the classifier.

[math]\ \hat{d_{i,a}}=\frac{e^{y_{i,a}}}{\sum_{b\in classes}{e^{y_{i,b}}}}[/math],

[math] \hat{d_{i,a}}[/math] is the predicted class distribution from the linear classifier for pixel [math]i[/math] and class [math]a[/math].

[math]\ \hat{d_{k,a}}= \frac{1}{s(k)}\sum_{i\in k}{\hat{d_{i,a}}}[/math],

where [math]\hat{d_k}[/math] is the pixelwise distribution at superpixel k, [math] s(k)[/math] is the surface of component k.

In this case, the final labeling for each component [math]k[/math] is given by:

[math]\ l_k=argmax_{a\in classes}{\hat{d_{k,a}}}[/math]


Results

The network was tested on the Stanford Background, SIFT Flow and Barcelona datasets.

The Stanford Background dataset shows that super-pixels could achieve state of the art results with minimal processing times.

File:stanford res.png

Since super-pixels were shown to be so effective in the Stanford Dataset, they were the only method of image segmentation used for the SIFT Flow and Barcelona datasets. Instead, exposure of features to the network (whether balanced as super-index 1 or natural as super-index 2) were explored, in conjunction with the aforementioned Graph Based Segmentation method, when combined with the optimal cover algorithm.

From the sift dataset, it can be seen that the Graph Based Segmentation with optimal cover method offers a significant advantage.

File:sift res.png

In the Barcelona dataset, it can be seen that a dataset with many labels is too difficult for the CNN.

File:barcelona res.png

Conclusions

A wide window for contextual information, achieved through the multiscale network, improves the results largely and diminishes the role of the post-processing stage. This allows to replace the computational expensive post-processing with a simpler and faster method (e.g., majority vote) to increase the efficiency without a relevant loss in classification accuracy. The paper has demonstrated that a feed-forward convolutional network, trained end-to-end and fed with raw pixels can produce state of the art performance on scene parsing datasets. The model does not rely on engineered features, and uses purely supervised training from fully-labeled images.

An interesting find in this paper is that even in the absence of any post-processing, by simply labelling each pixel with highest-scoring category produced by he convolutional net for that location, the system yields near sate-of-the-art pixel-wise accuracy.

Future Work

Aside from the usual advances to CNN architecture, such as unsupervised pre-training, rectifying non-linearities and local contrast normalization, there would be a significant benefit, especially in datasets with many variables, to have a semantic understanding of the variables. For example, understanding that a window is often part of a building or a car.

There would also be considerable benefit from improving the metrics used in scene parsing. The current pixel-wise accuracy is a somewhat uninformative measure of the quality of the result. Spotting rare objects is often more important than correctly labeling every boundary pixel of a large region such as the sky. The average per-class accuracy is a step in the right direction, but the authors would prefer a system that correctly spots every object or region, while giving an approximate boundary to a system that produces accurate boundaries for large regions (sky, road, grass, etc), but fails to spot small objects.