Difference between revisions of "Deep Alternative Neural Network: Exploring Contexts As Early As Possible For Action Recognition"

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==Deep Alternative Neural Network:==
 
==Deep Alternative Neural Network:==
 
===Adaptive Network Input===
 
===Adaptive Network Input===
The input size of the video clip is generally determined empirically and various approaches have been taken in the past with a different number of frames. The authors have come up with an adaptive method to automatically select the most discriminative video fragments using the density of optical flow energy which exhibits regular periodicity. The optimal flow energy  of an optical field (v_{x},v_{y}) is defined as follows  
+
The input size of the video clip is generally determined empirically and various approaches have been taken in the past with a different number of frames. Past research shows that motion energy intensity induced by human activity exhibits has a regular periodicity. This signal can be approximately estimated by optical flow computation as shown in Figure 1, and is particularly suitable to address our temporal estimation due to:
 +
* the local minima and maxima landmarks probably correspond to characteristic gesture and motion
 +
* it is relatively robust to changes in camera viewpoint.
 +
 
 +
The authors have come up with an adaptive method to automatically select the most discriminative video fragments using the density of optical flow energy which exhibits regular periodicity.The optimal flow energy  of an optical field (v_{x},v_{y}) is defined as follows  
  
 
:<math>e(I)=\underset{(x,y)\in\mathbb{P}}{\operatorname{\Sigma}} ||v_{x}(x,y),v_{y}(x,y)||_{2}</math>
 
:<math>e(I)=\underset{(x,y)\in\mathbb{P}}{\operatorname{\Sigma}} ||v_{x}(x,y),v_{y}(x,y)||_{2}</math>

Revision as of 03:29, 15 November 2017

Introduction

Action recognition deals with recognizing and classifying the actions or activities done by humans or other agents in a video clip. Conventional Neural Networks [1,2,3] and their shifted version 3D CNNs [4,5,6] have been employed in action recognition but they identify and aggregate the contexts at later stages. The authors have come up with a strategy to identify contexts in the videos as early as possible and leverage their evolutions for action recognition. Contexts contribute semantic clues for action recognition in videos. The network themselves involve a lot of layers and the first layer typically being receptive fields (RF) output only extra local features. As we go deeper into the layers the Receptive Fields expand and we start getting the contexts. The authors identified that increasing the number of layers will only cause additional burden in terms of handling the parameters and contexts could be obtained even in the earlier stages. The authors also cite the papers [9,10] that relate the CNNs and the visual systems of our brain, one remarkable difference being the abundant recurrent connections in our brain compared to the forward connections in the CNNs.

The main contributions in the paper can be summarized as follows:

  • A Deep Alternative Neural Network (DANN) is proposed for action recognition.
  • DANN consists of alternative volumetric convolutional and recurrent layers.
  • An adaptive method to determine the temporal size of the video clip
  • A volumetric pyramid pooling layer to resize the output before fully connected layers.

Deep Alternative Neural Network:

Adaptive Network Input

The input size of the video clip is generally determined empirically and various approaches have been taken in the past with a different number of frames. Past research shows that motion energy intensity induced by human activity exhibits has a regular periodicity. This signal can be approximately estimated by optical flow computation as shown in Figure 1, and is particularly suitable to address our temporal estimation due to:

  • the local minima and maxima landmarks probably correspond to characteristic gesture and motion
  • it is relatively robust to changes in camera viewpoint.

The authors have come up with an adaptive method to automatically select the most discriminative video fragments using the density of optical flow energy which exhibits regular periodicity.The optimal flow energy  of an optical field (v_{x},v_{y}) is defined as follows

[math]e(I)=\underset{(x,y)\in\mathbb{P}}{\operatorname{\Sigma}} ||v_{x}(x,y),v_{y}(x,y)||_{2}[/math]

P is the pixel level set of selected interest points.


golfswing.png

Alternative Layer

This is a key layer consisting of a standard volumetric convolutional layer followed by a designed recurrent layer. Volumetric convolutional extracts features from local neighborhoods and a recurrent layer is applied to the output and it proceeds iteratively for T times. The input of a unit at position (x,y,z) in the jth feature map of the ith AL in time t is given by,

[math]u_{ij}^{xyz}(t) = u_{ij}^{xyz}(0) + f(w_{ij}^{r}u_{ij}^{xyz}(t-1)) + b_{ij} u_{ij}^{xyz}(0) = f(w_{i-1}^{c}u_{(i-1)j}^{xyz}) [/math]

U(0): feed forward output of volumetric convolutional layer. U(t-1) : recurrent input of previous time w_{k}^{c} and w_{k}^{r}: vectorized feed-forward kernels and recurrent kernels respectively f: ReLU function

Volumetric Pyramid Pooling Layer

Figure 2: Volumetric Pyramid Pooling Layer

The authors have replaced the last pooling layer with a volumetric pyramid pooling layer as we need fixed-length vectors for the fully connected layers and the AL accepts video clips of arbitrary sizes and produces outputs of variable sizes. The authors have used the max pooling to pool the responses of each kernel. The outputs are kM dimensional vectors where

M: number of bins K: Number of kernels in the last alternative layer.

Overall Architecture

Figure 3:DANN Architecture

The following are the components of the DANN (as shown in Figure 3)

  • 6 Alternative layers with 64, 128, 256, 256, 512 and 512 kernel response maps
  • 5 ReLU and volumetric pooling layers
  • 1 volumetric pyramid pooling layer
  • 3 fully connected layers of size 2048 each
  • A softmax layer

Implementation details

The authors have used the Torch toolbox platform for Implementations of volumetric convolutions, recurrent layers and optimizations. They have used a technique called as random clipping for data augmentation, in which they select a point randomly from the input video of fixed size 80x80xt after determining the temporal size t. For training the network the authors have used SGD applied to mini-batches of size 30 with a negative log likelihood criterion. Training is done by minimizing the cross-entropy loss function using backpropagation through time algorithm (BPTT). During testing, they applied a video clip divided into 80x80xt clips with a stride of 4 frames followed by testing with 10 crops. Final score is the average of all clip-level scores and the crop scores.

Evaluations

Datasets:

  • The datasets used in the evaluation are UCF101 and HMDB51
  • UCF101 – 13K videos annotated into 101 classes
  • HMDB51 – 6.8K videos with 51 actions.
  • Three training and test splits are provided
  • Performance measured by mean classification accuracy across the splits.
  • UCF101 split – 9.5K videos; HMDB51 – 3.7K training videos.

Quantitative Results

The authors used three types of optical flows, viz., sparse, RGB and TVL1 and found that TVL1 is suitable as action recognition is more easy to learn from motion information compared to raw pixel values. The influence of data augmentation is also studied. The baseline being sliding window with 75% overlap, the authors observed that the random clipping and multi-scale clipping outperformed the baseline on the UCF101 split 1 dataset. The authors were able to prove that the adaptive temporal length was able to give a boost of 4.2% when compared with architectures that had fixed-size temporal length. Experiments were also conducted to see if the learnings done in one dataset could improve the accuracy of another dataset. Fine tuning HMDB51 from UCF101 boosted the performance from 56.4% to 62.5%. The authors also observed that increasing the AL layers improves the performance as larger contexts are being embedded into the DANN. The DANN achieved an overall accuracy of 65.9% and 91.6% on HMDB51 and UCF101 respectively.


Performance Comparison of different input modalities.png

Qualitative Analysis

The authors have discussed the quality of the prediction in the video clips taking examples of two different scenes involving bowling and haircut. In the bowling scene, the adaptive temporal choice used by DANN could aggregate more reasonable semantic structures and hence it leveraged reasonable video clips as input. On the other hand, the performance on the haircut video clip was not up to the mark as the rich contexts provided by the DANN was not helpful in a setting with simple actions performed in a simple background.

Conclusion

  • Deep alternative neural network is introduced for action recognition.
  • DANN consists of volumetric convolutional layer and a recurrent layer.
  • The authors have experimented with different datasets like HMDB51 and UCF101 with different scenarios and compared the * * performance of DANN with other approaches.
  • The spatial size is still chosen in an ad hoc manner and this can be an area of improvement.
  • There are prospects for studying action tube which is a more compact input.

References

[1] Andrej Karpathy, George Toderici, Sachin Shetty, Tommy Leung, Rahul Sukthankar, and Li FeiFei. Large-scale video classification with convolutional neural networks. In CVPR, pages 1725–1732, 2014

[2] Karen Simonyan and Andrew Zisserman. Two-stream convolutional networks for action recognition in videos. In NIPS, pages 568–576, 2014.

[3]Limin Wang, Yu Qiao, and Xiaoou Tang. Action recognition with trajectory-pooled deepconvolutional descriptors. In CVPR, pages 4305–4314, 2015.

[4] Shuiwang Ji, Wei Xu, Ming Yang, and Kai Yu. 3d convolutional neural networks for human action recognition. TPAMI, 35(1):221–231, 2013.

[5] Du Tran, Lubomir Bourdev, Rob Fergus, Lorenzo Torresani, and Manohar Paluri. Learning spatiotemporal features with 3d convolutional networks. In ICCV, pages 4489–4497, 2015.

[6]Gül Varol, Ivan Laptev, and Cordelia Schmid. Long-term temporal convolutions for action recognition. arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.04494, 2016.

[36] Christopher Zach, Thomas Pock, and Horst Bischof. A duality based approach for realtime tv-l 1 optical flow. In Pattern Recognition, pages 214–223. 2007.